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File format

Documents formats

Format fullname
Format description
Portable Document Format
PDF is an electronic document format designed by Adobe Systems using some language features PostScript. The official program for viewing documents in this format, Adobe Reader. Most often, PDF-file is a combination of text with raster and vector graphics and text forms, scripts written in JavaScript and other types of items.
Microsoft Word Document
DOC is a file extension for word processing documents. It is associated mainly with Microsoft Word application. DOC files can also contain charts and tables, videos, images, sounds and diagrams. It supports almost all the Operating Systems.
Microsoft Office Open XML
Since 2007, Microsoft began to use a file format docx, which is created by using the Office Open XML. The format is a zip-file containing the text in the form of XML, graphics and other data that can be translated into a sequence of bits using patent-protected binary formats. At first it was assumed that this format will replace the doc, but both formats are still used today.
Microsoft Excel Worksheet Sheet (97-2003)
XLS format is used to refer to the documents of the program Microsoft Excel. This file is a spreadsheet. All document data distributed and stored in the cells. Each cell has a unique address, which is denoted by letters and Arabic numerals. The cell can contain fixed data, and data in the form of formulas, which bind more cells.
Office Open XML Worksheet Sheet
XLSX is a file format created with Microsoft Excel, version from 2007 and younger. This file is a spreadsheet. All data distributed document and stored in the cells. Each cell has a unique address, which is denoted by the letters and Arabic numerals. XLSX file format is based on the Open XML. To reduce the size of the file is compressed ZIP.

Images formats

Format fullname
Format description
Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPG extension was assigned to the image files. Many photos and web graphics are saved in JPG. In order to compress many bitmaps are saved in .jpg, that makes it easier to transfer and download these files on the Internet. JPG format based on the 24-bit color palette, the higher the level of compression applied to create the file JPG, the greater the decompression effect on image quality.
Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPEG is one of the most popular graphic formats used for storing still images and similar images. JPEG algorithm is capable of compressing the image as lossy and lossless. The most widely used JPEG received in digital photography and picture archiving and communication via the Internet. JPEG compression is not suitable for drawings, text and iconic graphics.
Portable Network Graphic
PNG is a raster graphic data storage format that uses lossless compression algorithm to Deflate. PNG was created as a free format to replace GIF. PNG supports three main types of raster images: grayscale image, a color indexed image and the color image. PNG format stores graphical information in a compressed form.
Encapsulated PostScript
This is a format for storing graphical vector images used in the Adobe Illustrator program and other software for processing vector graphics. EPS can have a binary or ASCII structure. It can contain raster images, 2D vector graphics and text. It’s also applied as a convenient format for transmitting images among several programs or operation systems.
Graphics Interchange Format
GIF is a format for the exchange of images. It is a popular format graphics. Capable of storing compressed data without loss of quality in the format of not more than 256 colors. GIF format was developed in 1987 (GIF87a) by company CompuServe for transferring raster images over networks. In 1989, the format has been modified (GIF89a), have been added support transparency and animation.
ICO is a file of this format usually contains a small image icons of different resolutions (16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels) and various color depths (16 colors, 32, 64, 128, 256, 16-bit, and so on). Used to display files and folders in the graphical user interface (GUI) operating systems. This format can be opened with the help of the program ACDSee.
Scalable Vector Graphics
SVG is a markup language, scalable vector graphics, created by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), designed for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector / raster graphics in XML. Supports both and animated, interactive graphics and declarative scripting. Not support the description of three-dimensional objects. The basis of SVG VML formed markup languages and PGML.
Truevision TGA (Targa) Image
TGA is a raster graphic format. It was originally created by Truevision Inc. for graphics cards has its own production in 1984, but later became popular on a variety of platforms, especially in the field of video editing, animation. Format supports color depths 1-32 bits per pixel. There is support for alpha channels, compression RLE.
Tagged Image File Format
TIFF is a format for storing raster graphics. It is used for scanning and OCR text, faxing, printing industry, is widely supported by a variety of graphics applications. The format was developed by Aldus Corporation in collaboration with Microsoft for use with PostScript. Who is copyright to it owns Adobe Systems. The format used to store images with great depth of color.
Wireless Bitmap
WBMP is a bitmaps wireless application protocol. Files with the extension .wbmp contain bitmap black and white images. In WBMP format monochrome images are in pixels. Pixels are presented in the form of units, are stored as white and pixels, represented as pairs are stored as black. WBMP images are used in a variety of mobile phones.
WebP Image Format
This is a new format that supports lossless and loss compression quality for images on the Internet. The Google Company developed this format specifically to do work online as quickly and conveniently as possible. The main advantage is that its file size is small compared to other image formats, but similar in image quality.
Bitmap Image File
BMP is format for storing bitmap images. In this format, you can only save bitmaps monolayer. For each pixel in different files may come different number of bits. The latest versions of the BMP has the ability to control color. In particular, you can specify the endpoints perform gamma correction and embed color profiles ICC.

Audio formats

Format fullname
Format description
MP3 Audio Format
Is the most common format for storing audio. Almost any player on any platform can open mp3 files. The audio is compressed with loss of quality, but the loss is negligible for the typical user, and the file size is usually less than that of the original files.
Graphics Accounts Data File
Contains financial account information for Graphic Accounts, a program for creating an maintaining personal budgets; may include data for one or more bank accounts.
Compressed Audio File
This is a lossless-format (and encoding algorithm) for Apple platforms. M4A is widely used in iPod players and as a component in QuickTime media-players. The m4a codecs decoder is found in open sources - this allows third party users to open files in that format.
Audio Interchange File Format
Is a standard for storing audio files in Apple operating systems. It was developed in 1988 based on the IFF format and is a lossless format - audio data is stored in an uncompressed form. In essence, AIFF is an analog to WAV for the Apple Macintosh platform.
Free Lossless Audio Codec
This is open lossless codecs, developed under the Ogg project. Lately it’s become quite popular: many users wishing to store audio with original quality choose FLAC. This is partly in connection with the fact that codecs uses IDv1 and IDv3 tags - this allows a user to sort an audio collection according to one’s particular tastes, changing the original metadata of the tracks.
Ogg Vorbis Compressed Audio File
This format is free, which apparently is one of the reasons for its popularity. The used codecs supports variable bit rates (as a default), and .ogg files usually play back easily on all platforms. All things being equal, the sound quality exceeds that of mp3 somewhat.
Waveform Audio File Format
One of the most common audio formats. The format was developed by Microsoft (in collaboration with IBM) and usually stores uncompressed audio data with pulse-code modulation, but it can be used to store sound processed with other audio codecs.
Windows Media Audio
This is a proprietary format developed by Microsoft. Users have noticed low error resilience: sometimes insignificant damage to the file can cause the file not to play. Besides this, the closed format hampers its proliferation outside of Windows platforms.
Adaptive Multi Rate
This format was originally intended for voice compression and is able to change the bit rates of encoded audio data. AMR is actively used for encoding and decoding voice while its being transmitted over network channels. The format allows one to consider network capacity and adapt it to channel loads. Due to this, the voice quality is practically undiminished.

Ebook formats

Format fullname
Format description
Deja Vu
DjVu is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs. It uses technologies such as image layer separation of text and background/images, progressive loading, arithmetic coding, and lossy compression for bitonal images.
Electronic Publication
Is a format developed by the International Digital Publishing Forum. It is characterized by the XML- and XHTM-based optional use of CSS styling. The main feature of this format is the use of reflowable text (word wrap) which makes it possible to adapt the image to different device displays. The ePub file is a zip-archive with an .epub extension.
Is based on the XML format. Its main tasks are: precise display on a variety of devices, full preservation of document structure, ability to be transformed into other formats. Unlike other popular e-book formats, fb2 does not specify the appearance options for different devices’ displays. The format employs tools to indicate the different parts of the book – verses, epigraphs, quotations.
HyperText Markup Language
HTML is a Web format file. HTML source code can be changed in a text editor. HTML files are being developed for future use in the users web browser, allowing you to format text, images and other materials required sites. File with this format use tags to build web pages. HTML code is parsed Web browser and usually not visible to the user.
Mobipocket eBook
Is a format used in the MobiPocket Reader software on desktop and mobile platforms. Books in this format can have .prc and .mobi file extensions. MOBI was originally based on the PalmDOC format; adding HTML tags made it possible to create a high-compression version which compresses data to a high degree. There are a number of formatting restrictions – the text cannot be indented, and inserted tables and images cannot be formatted.
Shanda Bambook
Is a format developed for the Shanda Bambook e-books, and is exclusive to those devices. Certain e-books produced by other companies can also view documents of this type. Shanda released its latest device in 2011 which is why this format is not widely used at present.
Plaintext Text File
TXT is a file format that contains the text, organized in rows. Text files opposed binaries that contain data that is not intended for interpretation as a text (encoded sound or image). The text file can contain both formatted and unformatted text. Since the very simple text files, they are frequently used for storing data.
Microsoft PowerPoint 97/2000/XP
A file to store the generated presentations and Microsoft PowerPoint slide shows with the ability to edit them. It was first introduced to store the data in PowerPoint 97 Editor. Stores a set of individual slides with text, graphics, video, and audio information. The file contains information on visual effects inside the slides.
Rich Text Format
RTF is a cross-platform format for storing labeled text documents, created jointly by Microsoft and Adobe, as meta-tags for the format Word in 1982. Adobe has in 1985 continued to develop the format and created a language PostScript. The basis is a simple text format, control sequences which are not macros that are available for change, and teams with a fixed behavior.
Extensible Markup Language
is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
CorelDRAW Graphics files (7-X3,X4 versions)
This is a format for storing graphical information, created in the CorelDRAW program. It can contain raster and vector images. It’s used exclusively in vector editors from the Corel company. For use in third-party software it’s necessary to use converters. Version 10 and earlier can be opened in vector software from Adobe. CDR can be opened also with the help of Inkscape and sK1 programs.
Adobe Photoshop bitmap
This format is used for storing bitmap images in an Adobe Photoshop project file. It is stored in uncompressed form, and it includes color spaces, layers with masks, two-color settings, layer structures and other data that allow bitmap photos to be finely edited.
ODF Text Document
A file to store text created using free software based on OpenOffice. It’s used to store books, reports, notes, and other textual information. The file has an XML structure, is used as an alternative DOC format and has an open source code.
Personal Computer Exchange
PCX is standard presentation graphics developed by ZSoft Korporation. Used graphics program ZSoft PC Paintbrush for MS-DOS, word processing and desktop publishing applications, such as Microsoft Word and Ventura Publisher. Not as popular analog BMP, although supported by specific graphics editors such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, GIMP and others.
Comma-Separated Values
Is a text format used for representing tabular data. Each file line is located on a separate line in the table. The values of the columns are separated by a delimiter, most often a comma. However, other symbols can be used as delimiters as well.
OpenDocument Presentation
A file to store presentations with tables, drawings, texts, audio and video created using open source programs: OpenOffice, StarOffice, LibreOffice, etc. The file is editable and based on the XML format. Is an open alternative to the closed PPT format.
Small Web Format
SWF is a format designed to store vector graphics and animation, it may contain sound, video, text and other data. Such files are widely used for creating animation, games and playing video and audio on web pages. It is possible to open SWF files with Adobe Flash Player or with a browser that has the flash plugin installed.
Portable anymap
A bitmap image in the Portable Any Map format that was originally developed for processing and storing several types of monochrome and color images without compression as well as grayscale images. Bitmap graphics data in a PNM file are stored using ASCII or binary structure.
Microsoft PowerPoint
An extension to store presentations and slide shows, for PowerPoint 2007 and newer versions. Contains a set of slides with audiovisual information, multimedia objects, and formatting. The file is created based on the XML format, which allows you to view the recorded information in text editors.

Video formats

Format fullname
Format description
Flash Video
FLV is a Flash Video container used on popular hosting sites that stores audio, video and other data. It often uses h.264 or h.263 codecs for video storage and MP3 for audio. There are a lot of programs for both Windows and Mac operating systems that are able to open .flv files.
Ogg Video File
OGV is a container that uses OGG open source format. OGG is unrestricted of software patents which was one of the main goals of its creation. OGV file extension is used to store video stream with or without audio which in turn may be compressed with the Opus, Vorbis, Theora or Speex algorithm. The format is used to play video content on web pages with the help of HTML5. OGV files can be played by wide variety of media players.
Audio Video Interleave
AVI is a multimedia container that is very popular among PC and Mac users. The format was developed by Microsoft in 1992. Usually AVI is used as a video format but unlike other formats of that time, AVI may contain both audio and video data compressed with a use of different combinations of codecs. More often such video codecs as DivX and XVID are used with .avi files. For audio playback such codecs as MP3, AC3 and PCM are used. It is possible to play AVI files with Windows Media Player or other similar programs.
Windows Media Video
WMV is a codec usually used for video compression in ASF format. It is possible to open WMV files both on Mac and Windows with almost any player or convert the format to another one. WMV supports DRM protection that prevent users from copying information. It is the main reason why the format is widely used by companies that sell digital video and audio online. Also the format is well-known among users because WMV files are used on popular Xbox 360 devices. Low bitrate makes such files an ideal solution for HD DVD and Blu-ray discs.
Moving Picture Experts Group
MPG is an extension used for files compressed with MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 standard. MPG files can be played on Windows, Mac and any mobile devices. The first versions of this format were significantly limited, supporting low video resolution and limiting data bandwidth, but latest standard updates allows it to be used even in HDTV broadcasting.
Apple QuickTime Movie
MOV is a format developed by Apple and used for movie and other video data storage. It is compatible both with Windows and Mac. However, Windows Media Player can open only early versions of the file extension. If you have versions 2.0 and higher, you need Apple QuickTime Player or you can convert it to other format compatible with your player.
Matroska Multimedia Container
MKV is an open source container that can contain media data compressed with a use of different codecs. It has a lot of advantages over the legacy AVI container: it can contain audio tracks and subtitles in different languages, that can be switched without stopping the playback, file seek and rewind are very fast. Also the format is easy to edit, that is why audio and video data can be extracted effortlessly.